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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 18;9(3):e92134. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092134. eCollection 2014.

Increased frequency of Tim-3 expressing T cells is associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection.

Author information

1
Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
2
Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
3
Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.
4
Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
5
Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Abstract

More than a decade after West Nile virus (WNV) entered North America, and despite a significant increase in reported cases during the 2012 and 2013 seasons, no treatment or vaccine for humans is available. Although antiviral T cells contribute to the control of WNV, little is known about their regulation during acute infection. We analyzed the expression of Tim-3 and PD-1, two recently identified T cell negative immune checkpoint receptors, over the course of WNV infection. Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited higher frequencies of Tim-3+ cells than asymptomatic subjects within naïve/early differentiated CD28+/-CD57-CD4+ and differentiated CD28-CD57-CD8+ T cells. Our study links Tim-3-expression on T cells during acute WNV infection with the development of symptomatic disease, suggesting Tim-3 and its ligands could be targeted therapeutically to alter anti-WNV immunity and improve disease outcome.

PMID:
24642562
PMCID:
PMC3958446
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0092134
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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