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J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Feb;64(2):134-7.

Hepatitis B, C virus co-infection and behavioral risks in HIV-positive patients in southern Iran.



To determine the risk factors and frequency of hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.


The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Control of Diseases Centre of Kerman Medical University, southern Iran, between May and December 2011. Demographic features and history of high-risk behaviours were evaluated in 165 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen tests were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis.


Out of the 165 patients, 136 (82.4%) were male and 29 (17.6%) were female. The mean age of the subjects was 40.4 +/- 9 years. Positive hepatitis C antibody was found in 122 (73.9%) and positive hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 6 (3.6%). Frequency of all three viruses co-infection was 3 (1.8%). History of imprisonment (OR = 17.5; 95% CI: 7.1-43.1) and drug injection addiction (OR = 15.3; 95% CI: 6.4-36.1) were the most significant risk factors involved in hepatitis C virus co-infection.


Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection was high and it was strongly related to history of imprisonment and drug injection addiction.

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