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Am J Dent. 2013 Dec;26(6):335-40.

Analysis of interfacial structure and bond strength of self-etch adhesives.



To determine the bond strength, nanoleakage and interfacial morphology of four self-etch adhesives bonded to superficial dentin.


Microtensile (MT) (n= 15) and single plane shear (SP) (n= 8) bond tests were performed using human dentin polished through 320-grit SiC paper. Clearfil Protect Bond (PB), Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), Prompt L-Pop (PLP) and G-Bond (GB) were used according to their manufacturers' instructions. Composite was applied as cylinders with a thickness of 4 mm with a 1 mm diameter and stored in water at 370C for 24 hours. Specimens were debonded with a testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. Means and standard deviations of bond strength were calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher's PLSD intervals were calculated at the 0.05 level of significance. Failure modes were determined at x100. The hybrid layer was revealed by treatment with 5N HC1/5% NaOCl or fractured perpendicular to the interface and sputter coated with gold. Specimens were viewed at x1,000, x2,500, and x5,000 in a field emission SEM at 15 kV. Teeth (n=2) sectioned into 0.9 mm-thick slabs were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, rinsed and immersed in photo-developing solution for 8 hours. Specimens were sectioned (90 nm-thick) and observed under TEM.


Means ranged from 25.0 to 73.1 MPa for MT and from 15.5 to 56.4 MPa for SP. MT values were greater than SP, but were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P= 0.003) and provided the same order for the systems studied. Fisher's PLSD intervals (P< 0.05) for bond strength techniques and adhesives results were 1.7 and 2.3 MPa, respectively. Failures sites were mixed. TEM showed that hybrid layers were -0.5 pm for PB, GB and S3 and approximately 5 microm for PLP. SEM showed morphologic differences among adhesives. Silver nitrate deposits were observed within the interfaces for all adhesive systems.

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