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J Crit Care. 2014 Jun;29(3):438-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

Improving patient care through the prism of psychology: application of Maslow's hierarchy to sedation, delirium, and early mobility in the intensive care unit.

Author information

1
Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; Veterans Administration Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address: james.c.jackson@vanderbilt.edu.
2
Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.
3
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
4
Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; Veterans Administration Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Nashville, TN.

Abstract

The intensive care unit (ICU) is not only a place where lives are saved; it is also a site of harm and iatrogenic injury for millions of people treated in this setting globally every year. Increasingly, hospitals admit only the sickest patients, and although the overall number of hospital beds remains stable in the United States, the percentage of that total devoted to ICU beds is rising. These 2 realities engender a demographic imperative to address patient safety in the critical care setting. This article addresses the medical community's resistance to adopting a culture of safety in critical care with regard to issues surrounding sedation, delirium, and early mobility. Although there is currently much research and quality improvement in this area, most of what we know from these data and published guidelines has not become reality in the day-to-day management of ICU patients. This article is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the literature but rather a framework to rethink our currently outdated culture of critical care by employing Maslow's hierarchy of needs, along with a few novel analogies. Application of Maslow's hierarchy will help propel health care professionals toward comprehensive care of the whole person not merely for survival but toward restoration of pre-illness function of mind, body, and spirit.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive impairment; Critical care; Patient safety; Psychology; Rehabilitation

PMID:
24636724
PMCID:
PMC4718660
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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