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Am Econ Rev. 2013 Oct;103(6):2052-2086.

Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes.

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Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics and Public Policy, University of Chicago; Professor of Science and Society, University College Dublin; Senior Fellow, American Bar Foundation; The University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 E. 59 St., Chicago, IL 60637.
Ph.D. Candidate in Economics, University of Chicago; The University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 E. 59 St., Chicago, IL 60637.
Assistant Professor of Economics, Vanderbilt University and Health Policy Associate of the Robert Wood Johnson Center for Health Policy at Meharry Medical College; Vanderbilt University, Department of Economics, PMB 351819, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235-1819.


A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects.


Perry Preschool program; academic motivation; cognitive traits; early childhood interventions; experimentally estimated production functions; externalizing behavior; factor analysis; human capital; human development; personality traits; social experiments

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