Send to

Choose Destination
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jul 28;53(31):8045-8049. doi: 10.1002/anie.201311047. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Stimuli-responsive theragrippers for chemomechanical controlled release.

Author information

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Johns Hopkins University 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (USA).
Fischell Department of Bioengineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (USA).
Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD21218 (USA).
Contributed equally


We report on a therapeutic approach using thermo-responsive multi-fingered drug eluting devices. These therapeutic grippers referred to as theragrippers are shaped using photolithographic patterning and are composed of rigid poly(propylene fumarate) segments and stimuli-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hinges. They close above 32 °C allowing them to spontaneously grip onto tissue when introduced from a cold state into the body. Due to porosity in the grippers, theragrippers could also be loaded with fluorescent dyes and commercial drugs such as mesalamine and doxorubicin, which eluted from the grippers for up to seven days with first order release kinetics. In an in vitro model, theragrippers enhanced delivery of doxorubicin as compared to a control patch. We also released theragrippers into a live pig and visualized release of dye in the stomach. The design of such tissue gripping drug delivery devices offers an effective strategy for sustained release of drugs with immediate applicability in the gastrointestinal tract.


actuators; drug delivery; hydrogels; polymers; soft robotics

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center