Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Psychosom Med. 2014 Apr;76(3):190-6. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000044.

Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Author information

1
From the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health (J.A.S., D.E., L.T.W., L.F., K.H., K.W.D.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; Department of Chemistry (N.E.), School of Humanities & Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California; and Department of Mathematics (P.L.), College of Arts and Sciences, New York University, New York, New York.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to review the effects of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms in randomized controlled trials. Although low vitamin D levels have been observationally associated with depressive symptoms, the effect of vitamin D supplementation as an antidepressant remains uncertain.

METHODS:

MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and references of included reports (through May 2013) were searched. Two independent reviewers identified and extracted data from randomized trials that compared the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms to a control condition. Two additional reviewers assessed study quality using The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Seven trials (3191 participants) were included.

RESULTS:

Vitamin D supplementation had no overall effect on depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.33 to 0.05, p = .16), although considerable heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation for participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms or depressive disorder had a moderate, statistically significant effect (2 studies: SMD, -0.60; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.01; p = .046), but a small, nonsignificant effect for those without clinically significant depression (5 studies: SMD, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.12; p = .61). Most trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Studies varied in the amount, frequency, duration, and mode of delivery of vitamin D supplementation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin D supplementation may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms in patients with clinically significant depression; however, further high-quality research is needed.

PMID:
24632894
PMCID:
PMC4008710
DOI:
10.1097/PSY.0000000000000044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center