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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 May;42:232-51. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.002. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Correction and suppression of reaching movements in the cerebral cortex: physiological and neuropsychological aspects.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SAPIENZA University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.
2
Cognitive Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging Laboratory, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), 34136 Trieste, Italy.
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SAPIENZA University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: roberto.caminiti@uniroma1.it.
4
Department of Neuromotor Physiology, Santa Lucia Foundation, 00179 Rome, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.
5
Cognitive Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging Laboratory, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), 34136 Trieste, Italy; Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK.

Abstract

Modification or suppression of reaches occurs in everyday life. We argue that a common modular architecture, based on similar neural structures and principles of kinematic and kinetic control, is used for both direct reaches and for their on-line corrections. When a reach is corrected, both the pattern of neural activity in parietal, premotor and motor cortex and the muscle synergies associated with the first movement can be smoothly blended or sharply substituted into those associated with the second one. Premotor cortex provides the early signaling for trajectory updating, while parietal and motor cortex provide the fine-grained encoding of hand kinematics necessary to reshape the motor plan. The cortical contribution to the inhibitory control of reaching is supported by the activity of a network of frontal areas. Premotor cortex has been proposed as a key structure for reaching suppression. Consistent with this, lesions in different nodes of this network result in different forms of motor deficits, such as Optic Ataxia in parietal patients, and commission errors in frontal ones.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebral cortex control; Hand reaching; Movement correction; Movement suppression; Parieto-frontal system

PMID:
24631852
DOI:
10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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