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Prev Med. 2014 Jun;63:24-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

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Florida International University, Department of Criminal Justice, 11200 SW 8th Street, PCA-364B, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address:
New York Institute of Technology, Behavioral Sciences, Northern Boulevard, PO Box 8000, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA. Electronic address:



To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents.


2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights.


Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; p<.05 across all models) relative to sleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered.


Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night.


Adolescence; Antisocial behavior; Health; Sleep deprivation; Substance use

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