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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014 Jun;40(6):1204-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.12.003. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Soft-focused extracorporeal shock waves increase the expression of tendon-specific markers and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in an adherent culture model of primary human tendon cells.

Author information

1
Orthopaedic Biotechnology Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: laura.degirolamo@grupposandonato.it.
2
Orthopaedic Biotechnology Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.
4
Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Gruppo Ospedaliero San Donato Foundation, Milan, Italy.
5
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
6
Orthopaedic Department, Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.
7
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Orthopaedic Department, Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

Focused extracorporeal shock waves have been found to upregulate the expression of collagen and to initiate cell proliferation in healthy tenocytes and to positively affect the metabolism of tendons, promoting the healing process. Recently, soft-focused extracorporeal shock waves have also been found to have a significant effect on tissue regeneration. However, very few in vitro reports have dealt with the application of this type of shock wave to cells, and in particular, no previous studies have investigated the response of tendon cells to this impulse. We devised an original model to investigate the in vitro effects of soft-focused shock waves on a heterogeneous population of human resident tendon cells in adherent monolayer culture. Our results indicate that soft-focused extracorporeal shock wave treatment (0.17 mJ/mm(2)) is able to induce positive modulation of cell viability, proliferation and tendon-specific marker expression, as well as release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This could prefigure a new rationale for routine employment of soft-focused shock waves to treat the failed healing status that distinguishes tendinopathies.

KEYWORDS:

Cell proliferation; Cytokines; Soft-focused extracorporeal shock waves; Tendinopathy; Tendon cells; Tendon-specific markers; Transforming growth factor β; Vascular endothelial growth factor

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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