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Cell. 2014 Mar 13;156(6):1139-1152. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.050.

A cortical circuit for gain control by behavioral state.

Author information

1
Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California, 675 Nelson Rising Road, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: yufu@phy.ucsf.edu.
2
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA; MSTP/Neuroscience graduate Program, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790, USA.
3
Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California, 675 Nelson Rising Road, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
4
Departments of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
5
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.
6
Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California, 675 Nelson Rising Road, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: stryker@phy.ucsf.edu.

Abstract

The brain's response to sensory input is strikingly modulated by behavioral state. Notably, the visual response of mouse primary visual cortex (V1) is enhanced by locomotion, a tractable and accessible example of a time-locked change in cortical state. The neural circuits that transmit behavioral state to sensory cortex to produce this modulation are unknown. In vivo calcium imaging of behaving animals revealed that locomotion activates vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-positive neurons in mouse V1 independent of visual stimulation and largely through nicotinic inputs from basal forebrain. Optogenetic activation of VIP neurons increased V1 visual responses in stationary awake mice, artificially mimicking the effect of locomotion, and photolytic damage of VIP neurons abolished the enhancement of V1 responses by locomotion. These findings establish a cortical circuit for the enhancement of visual response by locomotion and provide a potential common circuit for the modulation of sensory processing by behavioral state.

PMID:
24630718
PMCID:
PMC4041382
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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