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Chemosphere. 2014 Dec;116:91-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.033. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.

Author information

1
Seamangeum Regional Environmental Office, 100 Seogok-ro, Wansan-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 560-870, Republic of Korea; Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.
2
Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan. Electronic address: t.isobe@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp.
3
Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.
4
Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan; Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
5
Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan; Toxicological Centre, Unviersity of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
6
Technology Center for Marine Survey, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jl. M.H. Thamrin 8, Jakarta, Indonesia.
7
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, KyungHee University, Seochen-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701, Republic of Korea.
8
Science Education Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004, Philippines.
9
Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Abstract

In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Philippines (median 70 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) than those in Japan (median 22 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and Vietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries.

KEYWORDS:

Asia; Human breast milk; Human exposure; PFRs

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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