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J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Apr;25(4):489-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.009. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Chronic coffee consumption in the diet-induced obese rat: impact on gut microbiota and serum metabolomics.

Author information

1
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: t.cowan@queensu.ca.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
4
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
5
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Abstract

Epidemiological data confirms a strong negative association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Coffee is initially absorbed in the stomach and small intestine but is further fermented in the colon by gut microbiota. The bioavailability, production and biological activity of coffee polyphenols is modulated, in part, by gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic coffee consumption could mitigate negative gut microbiota and metabolomic profile changes induced by a high-fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to chow (12% kcal fat) or high-fat (60% kcal fat) diet. Each group was further divided into water or caffeinated coffee for 10 weeks. Coffee consumption in high-fat-fed rats was associated with decreased body weight, adiposity, liver triglycerides and energy intake. Despite a more favorable body composition, rats displayed profound systemic insulin resistance, likely due to caffeine. Coffee consumption attenuated the increase in Firmicutes (F)-to-Bacteroidetes (B) ratio and Clostridium Cluster XI normally associated with high-fat feeding but also resulted in augmented levels of Enterobacteria. In the serum metabolome, coffee had a distinct impact, increasing levels of aromatic and circulating short-chain fatty acids while lowering levels of branched-chain amino acids. In summary, coffee consumption is able to alter gut microbiota in high-fat-fed rats although the role of these changes in reducing diabetes risk is unclear given the increased insulin resistance observed with coffee in this study.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Coffee; Glucose; Gut microbiota; Insulin resistance

PMID:
24629912
DOI:
10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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