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Blood. 1989 Jan;73(1):117-22.

Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels in healthy volunteers and patients with various disorders as estimated by enzyme immunoassay.

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Department of Hematology-Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.


In order to better understand the patho-physiologic role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), we estimated its serum levels in healthy persons and patients with various disorders, using a newly developed enzyme immunoassay (Motojima et al). In 49 of 56 normal healthy persons (88%), the levels were beneath the sensitivity of the assay (less than 30 pg/mL), while in the remaining seven healthy persons, the levels ranged from 33 to 163 pg/mL. On the other hand, nine of 11 patients (82%) with idiopathic aplastic anemia (AA), one patient with Fanconi's anemia, six of 12 patients (50%) with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), five of 12 patients (42%) with acute leukemia without any blast cells in the blood (M4: one, M5: one, L1: one, and L2: two), six of 18 patients (33%) with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), one of two patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), two of four patients with lung cancer, one patient with cyclic neutropenia, two of seven patients with malignant lymphoma, and four patients with acute infection had G-CSF levels ranging from 46 pg/mL to greater than 2,000 pg/mL. Interestingly, a reverse correlation between blood neutrophil count and serum G-CSF level was clearly demonstrated for aplastic anemia (r = -.8169, P less than .01). Moreover, it was found that the G-CSF level rose during the neutropenic phase of cyclic neutropenia and after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in three patients with leukemia; also high G-CSF levels were positively correlated to blood neutrophil counts in some cases of infectious disorders and lung cancer. The cellular sources and the mechanisms for production and secretion of circulating G-CSF were not investigated in this study, but the data presented here strongly indicate that G-CSF plays an important role as a circulating neutrophilopoietin.

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