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Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Jul;62(7):415-21. doi: 10.1007/s11748-014-0386-x. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Lung carcinogenesis from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: characteristics of lung cancer from COPD and contribution of signal transducers and lung stem cells in the inflammatory microenvironment.

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1
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, 477-96 Owada-Shinden, Yachiyo, Chiba, 276-8524, Japan, ysekine@tymc.twmu.ac.jp.

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are closely related. The annual incidence of lung cancer arising from COPD has been reported to be 0.8-1.7 %. Treatment of lung cancer from COPD is very difficult due to low cardiopulmonary function, rapid tumor growth, and resistance to molecularly targeted therapies. Chronic inflammation caused by toxic gases can induce COPD and lung cancer. Carcinogenesis in the inflammatory microenvironment occurs during cycles of tissue injury and repair. Cellular damage can induce induction of necrotic cell death and loss of tissue integrity. Quiescent normal stem cells or differentiated progenitor cells are introduced to repair injured tissues. However, inflammatory mediators may promote the growth of bronchioalveolar stem cells, and activation of NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play crucial roles in the development of lung cancer from COPD. Many of the protumorgenic effects of NF-κB and STAT3 activation in immune cells are mediated through paracrine signaling. NF-κB and STAT3 also contribute to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To improve lung cancer treatment outcomes, lung cancer from COPD must be overcome. In this article, we review the characteristics of lung cancer from COPD and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the inflammatory microenvironment. We also propose the necessity of identifying the mechanisms underlying progression of COPD to lung cancer, and comment on the clinical implications with respect to lung cancer prevention, screening, and therapy.

PMID:
24627306
DOI:
10.1007/s11748-014-0386-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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