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Cesk Patol. 2014 Jan;50(1):18-24.

[Lynch syndrome in the hands of pathologists].

[Article in Czech]

Abstract

Lynch syndrome (formerly hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is the most common familial colorectal cancer syndrome with a known molecular genetic background. The syndrome is caused by a germline mutation of one of the genes encoding mismatch repair (MMR) proteins that are responsible for DNA replication errors repair. Impaired function of these proteins leads to microsatellite instability (MSI) and forms a suitable background for the development and progression of tumors, mainly colorectal cancer. Traditionally, Lynch syndrome was regarded to be responsible for 2 % of all cases of colorectal cancer, however recent estimates reach even 5 %. Due to this relatively high frequency, familial occurence, the absence of the premorbid phenotype and the development of malignant tumors during the productive years of life, the correct diagnosis becomes not only a medical, but also a socioeconomical problem. Unfortunately, clinical means of diagnostics of Lynch syndrome (like the Amsterdam criteria and Bethesda guidelines) lack sensitivity. It was shown that predictive models based on histological signs of MSI are more sensitive than the clinical criteria used to detect patients suspicious of Lynch syndrome. Of all MSI-H colorectal cancers, 1/5 is caused by Lynch syndrome, the rest being only sporadic cancers caused by epigenetic inactivation of a MMR protein. To rule out the sporadic cases, molecular genetic investigation of the BRAF gene and methylation analysis of MLH1 is used in the diagnostic workup of Lynch syndrome. The suspicion of Lynch syndrome, based on the results of the assortment of diagnostic methods mentioned above, should be proven by detection of a germline mutation of an MMR gene in peripheral blood, and followed by screening of family members, which is a necessary condition for efficient prevention.

PMID:
24624982
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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