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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Apr 14;53(16):4107-12. doi: 10.1002/anie.201308903. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Direct and single-molecule visualization of the solution-state structures of G-hairpin and G-triplex intermediates.

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Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Current address: Faculty of Medicine and Life Science Center of TARA, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan).


We present the direct and single-molecule visualization of the in-pathway intermediates of the G-quadruplex folding that have been inaccessible by any experimental method employed to date. Using DNA origami as a novel tool for the structural control and high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) for direct visualization, we captured images of the unprecedented solution-state structures of a tetramolecular antiparallel and (3+1)-type G-quadruplex intermediates, such as G-hairpin and G-triplex, with nanometer precision. No such structural information was reported previously with any direct or indirect technique, solution or solid-state, single-molecule or bulk studies, and at any resolution. Based on our results, we proposed a folding mechanism of these G-quadruplexes.


DNA origami; G-hairpin; G-quadruplex; G-triplex; atomic force microscopy

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