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Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2013;50(3):210-6.

The effects of the survival characteristics of parent Holocaust survivors on offsprings' anxiety and depression symptoms.

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Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ariel University, Israel.
Department of Criminology, Ariel University, Israel.
"Fearless Institute" for virtual technology.



This paper examines symptoms of anxiety and depression of Holocaust survivors' (HS) offspring as a function of their parents' age, gender, and survival situation (whether the survivor parent was alone or with a relative during the war).


The 180 adults (142 with two parent survivors; 38 with a single parent survivor) who participated in this study completed (a) a measure of state-trait anxiety, (b) a measure of depression symptoms, (c) a sociodemographic questionnaire was divided into three sections: information about the participant, about his mother and about his father.


Participants whose mothers were aged 18 or younger during the war and survived alone report more symptoms of anxiety and depression than participants whose mothers were the same age yet survived in the company of relatives. Participants whose mothers were aged 19 or older and survived either alone or in the company of relatives, exhibited fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. The survival situation was the only predictor related to the fathers. There were no significant differences between participants with one or two HS parents.


Although this study is based on a relatively small sample, it highlights the relationship between the parents' survival situation and symptoms of anxiety and depression among their offspring.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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