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Minerva Anestesiol. 2014 Dec;80(12):1261-72. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Timing and duration of intracranial hypertension versus outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

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Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Work, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia -;



The goal of this paper was to investigate the association between patterns of intracranial hypertension (IH) and outcomes, to describe the treatment of patients with different patterns of IH, and to examine whether IH is an independent predictor of mortality and unfavourable outcome, respectively.


A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively in 9 central European centers is presented. 204 patients with severe TBI who had intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were coded as having either early (within first 2 days), late (after first 2 days), or no IH. IH was defined as >60 min of ICP >20 mmHg/day. The total number of hours/day of IH was recorded. Treatment was followed closely for the first 10 days using the therapy intensity level (TIL) score. Associations between types of IH and demographic factors, trauma severity, or treatment factors as well as outcomes were analysed.


Patients in the early IH group were the most severely injured. They had the highest TIL levels, had the highest mortality (48%) and the highest rate of unfavourable outcome (65%) followed by the late IH group (20% and 57%) and the no IH group (23% and 36%). Duration of IH correlated significantly with hospital mortality. IH was an independent predictor of mortality and unfavourable outcome after adjusting for age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Abbreviated Injury Score "head".


Intracranial hypertension with early onset is independently associated with significantly worse outcome in patients with severe TBI. The total duration of IH shows a significant correlation to mortality.

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