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J Nurs Meas. 2013;21(3):378-400.

The Herth Hope Index − A psychometric study among cognitively intact nursing home patients.



Hope is seen as the act by which the temptation of despair is actively overcome and has thus been interpreted as an inner strength and an available resource for living in the present. An understanding of hope and its meaning in the lives of institutionalized older adults may aid in developing interventions to enhance hope and well-being in the nursing home setting. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Herth Hope Index among cognitively intact nursing home patients.


Cross-sectional data was obtained in 2008 and 2009 from 202 of 250 patients who met the inclusion criteria in 44 different nursing homes.


Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 internal consistent dimensions of hope, explaining 51.2% of the variance. The 1-factor, 2-factor, and the originally 3-factor solutions of the Herth Hope Index were tested by means of confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor construct comprising 11 items came out with the best model fit.


The Herth Hope Index was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing hope in nursing home patients. The 2-factor structure was psychometrically superior the original 3-factor construct of hope in this particular sample. The Herth Hope Index might be used to assess hope and changes in the hope process during long-term nursing home care. An enhanced understanding of hope in this population might contribute to increased quality of nursing home care.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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