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Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 12;4:4350. doi: 10.1038/srep04350.

Stabilization of oxygen-deficient structure for conducting Li4Ti5O12-δ by molybdenum doping in a reducing atmosphere.

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Department of Energy System, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
Center for Energy Conversion, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650, Korea.


Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is recognized as being one of the most promising anode materials for high power Li ion batteries; however, its insulating nature is a major drawback. In recent years, a simple thermal treatment carried out in a reducing atmosphere has been shown to generate oxygen vacancies (VO) for increasing the electronic conductivity of this material. Such structural defects, however, lead to re-oxidization over time, causing serious deterioration in anode performance. Herein, we report a unique approach to increasing the electronic conductivity with simultaneous improvement in structural stability. Doping of LTO with Mo in a reducing atmosphere resulted in extra charges at Ti sites caused by charge compensation by the homogeneously distributed Mo(6+) ions, being delocalized over the entire lattice, with fewer oxygen vacancies (VO) generated. Using this simple method, a marked increase in electronic conductivity was achieved, in addition to an extremely high rate capability, with no performance deterioration over time.

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