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Rhinology. 2014 Mar;52(1):3-8. doi: 10.4193/Rhin.

SCUAD and chronic rhinosinusitis. Reinforcing hypothesis driven research in difficult cases.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Our objective is to present recent research findings on recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in relation to "Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease" (SCUAD).

METHODOLOGY:

Literature review using Medline and Em base databases (search terms 'chronic rhinosinusitis'; "chronic sinusitis" or"Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease") limited to articles published in the English language.

RESULTS:

Complex pathophysiological mechanisms characterize various forms of chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS), where inflammation persists in spite of adequate medical treatment. In these cases, a multifactorial etiology often underlies the development of sino-nasal inflammation. The interaction between chronic upper and lower airway inflammation via neurogenic and systemic pathways may complicate the therapy of these patients, and lead to insufficient symptom control.

CONCLUSION:

The recently introduced definition of"Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease" (SCUAD) increases awareness of those patients with persistent inflammation and symptoms despite guideline-driven pharmacologic treatment. The concept of SCUAD may prove helpful in directing research towards clarifying the definition, diagnosis and pathophysiology of rhinitis and rhinosinusitis,their limits and overlap. In this review, a hypothesis on SCUAD immunopathology is also presented.

PMID:
24618621
DOI:
10.4193/Rhin
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