Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Addict Res Ther. 2013 Oct 31;4(163):1000163.

Coupling Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) with Electrotherapy: Fighting Iatrogenic Opioid Dependence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA ; Department of Holistic Medicine, National Institute for Holistic Addiction STudies, Inc. North Miami Beach, Fl, USA ; Department of Clinical Neurology, PATH Foundation NY, New York, NY, USA ; Center for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purbe Medinpur, West Bengal, India ; Dominion Diagnostics, LLC., North Kingstown, Rhode Island, USA ; Department of Addiction Research & Therapy, Malibu Beach Recovery Center, Malibu Beach California, USA ; Department of Nutrigenomics, IGENE LLC., Austin Texas, USA.
2
Departments of Psychiatry and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston, VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, Philidelphia, Pennslyvania, USA.
4
Department of Holistic Medicine, National Institute for Holistic Addiction STudies, Inc. North Miami Beach, Fl, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA ; Department of Clinical Neurology, PATH Foundation NY, New York, NY, USA.
6
Department of Clinical Neurology, PATH Foundation NY, New York, NY, USA.
7
Center for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purbe Medinpur, West Bengal, India.
8
Department of Psychiatry, University at Buffalo & Harvard University, Psychiatrist, WNY VAMC, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Abstract

The endemic of legal opioid iatrogenic induced prescription drug abuse is of major world-wide concern. Understanding pain pathways and the role of dopaminergic tone in the neurophysiology of pain relief provides potential therapeutic solutions. A 2011 NIDA report indicated that approximately 8.7% of the entire US population above the age of 12 years has used a psychoactive drug within the past 30 days. It has been reported that the overall genetic contribution to the variance of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was approximately 60% but each candidate gene evaluated by GWAS was relatively small. In an attempt to combat this global endemic we are proposing a number of alternative strategies. Prevention of death due to opioid overdose and attenuation of prescription abuse should focus on strategies that target 1) high-dosage medical users; 2) persons who seek care from multiple doctors; 3) persons involved in "drug diversion"; 4) genetic testing for addiction liability and severity indices; 5) non-pharmacolgical analgesic treatments such as electrotherapy.

KEYWORDS:

Analgesia; Dopamine; Electrotherapy; Genetic addiction risk score; Pain; Substance use disorder (SUD)

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center