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J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2014 Feb;44(1):25-32. doi: 10.5051/jpis.2014.44.1.25. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Omega 3 fatty acids as a host modulator in chronic periodontitis patients: a randomised, double-blind, palcebo-controlled, clinical trial.

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1
Department of Periodontology, Tatyasaheb Kore Dental College and Research Centre, New Pargaon, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Periodontitis is an infectious disease caused predominantly by gram-negative anerobes. The host inflammatory response to these bacteria causes alveolar bone loss that is characterized as periodontitis. Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) have anti-inflammatory properties, thus have been used to treat some chronic inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ω-3 FAs as a host modulating agent in patients with chronic periodontitis.

METHODS:

Sixty otherwise healthy subjects with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in our randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The control group (CG, n=30) was treated with scaling and root planing (SRP) and given a placebo; the treatment group (TG, n=30) was treated with SRP and dietary supplementation of ω-3 FAs (one 300 mg tablet daily for 12 weeks). Periodontal clinical parameters and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated in all patients at baseline, a 6-week and 12-week period after treatment.

RESULTS:

A significant reduction in the gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level was found in the TG compared to the CG at a 12-week period. However, no statistically significant changes in serum CRP levels were found.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that ω-3 FAs can successfully reduce gingival inflammation, pocket depth, and attachment level gain. Dietary supplementation with ω-3 FAs may have potential benefits as a host modulatory agent in the prevention and/or adjunctive management of chronic periodontitis.

KEYWORDS:

C-reactive protein; Chronic periodontitis; Omega-3 fatty acids

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