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ScientificWorldJournal. 2014 Jan 27;2014:235941. doi: 10.1155/2014/235941. eCollection 2014.

Diverse effects of lead nitrate on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression of stem cells isolated from a dental origin.

Author information

1
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2
Hygieia Innovation Sdn. Bhd, Lot 1G-2G, Komplex Lanai, No. 2, Persiaran Seri Perdana, Persint 10, 62250 Putrajaya, Malaysia.
3
Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.

PMID:
24616615
PMCID:
PMC3927845
DOI:
10.1155/2014/235941
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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