Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Biol. 2014 Mar 17;24(6):693-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Selective activation of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons induces immediate sleep-wake transitions.

Author information

1
Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.
2
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
3
National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
5
Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address: duanshumin@zju.edu.cn.
6
Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address: yanqinyu@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract

The basal forebrain (BF) plays a crucial role in cortical activation [1, 2]. However, the exact role of cholinergic BF (ch-BF) neurons in the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear [3, 4]. We demonstrated that photostimulation of ch-BF neurons genetically targeted with channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) was sufficient to induce an immediate transition to waking or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep from slow-wave sleep (SWS). Light stimulation was most likely to induce behavioral arousal during SWS, but not during REM sleep, a result in contrast to the previously reported photostimulation of noradrenergic or hypocretin neurons that induces wake transitions from both SWS and REM sleep. Furthermore, the ratio of light-induced transitions from SWS to wakefulness or to REM sleep did not significantly differ from that of natural transitions, suggesting that activation of ch-BF neurons facilitates the transition from SWS but does not change the direction of the transition. Excitation of ch-BF neurons during wakefulness or REM sleep sustained the cortical activation. Stimulation of these neurons for 1 hr induced a delayed increase in the duration of wakefulness in the subsequent inactive period. Our results suggest that activation of ch-BF neurons alone is sufficient to suppress SWS and promote wakefulness and REM sleep.

Comment in

PMID:
24613308
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center