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J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Jan;64(1):24-7.

Changing pattern of malignancies: analysis of histopathology based tumour registry data and comparison of three decades at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

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Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP).
Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore.
PNS Shifa, Karachi.



To assess the pattern of malignancies from tumour registry data and to find any changing pattern by comparing corresponding data from earlier periods.


The descriptive study was carried out at the Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All malignant tumours from 2002-2011 were analysed for age groups, gender distribution, and type of tumour with relation to the site. Tumours of paediatric age group were also assessed separately. Comparison with national and international studies and the data of previous decades - 1977-1988 and 1992-2001 was done to find any changing pattern. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis.


A total of 32718 malignant tumours were analysed. Of them, males were 19191 and 13527 were females (M:F ratio: 1.4:1). Majority of the patients were between 50-70 years of age. In males, urinary bladder tumours 2153 (11.2%), followed by combined lymphoma/leukaemia 2020 (10.5%) and prostate 1825 (9.5%) were top three malignancies, whereas in females breast 4178 (30.9%) was the commonest. Comparison of different decades showed that in males in the first monograph lymphoma was the commonest, then it was prostatic carcinoma in the second monograph, and now tumours of urinary bladder were on top position. In females, carcinoma cervix, which was at number 5 and 9 in the two earlier monographs was not found in the list of current 10 common tumours.


The study showed some interesting features, particularly in male malignancies and those related to urinary bladder tumours. The persistent increasing frequency of breast carcinoma in females is also alarming, and requires extensive efforts of awareness, screening and early detection programmes.

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