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J Biomed Semantics. 2014 Mar 6;5(1):14. doi: 10.1186/2041-1480-5-14.

The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) for biomedical research and knowledge discovery.

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Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.


The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) is an ontology to facilitate biomedical knowledge discovery. SIO features a simple upper level comprised of essential types and relations for the rich description of arbitrary (real, hypothesized, virtual, fictional) objects, processes and their attributes. SIO specifies simple design patterns to describe and associate qualities, capabilities, functions, quantities, and informational entities including textual, geometrical, and mathematical entities, and provides specific extensions in the domains of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics. SIO provides an ontological foundation for the Bio2RDF linked data for the life sciences project and is used for semantic integration and discovery for SADI-based semantic web services. SIO is freely available to all users under a creative commons by attribution license. See website for further information:

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