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J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Sep;63(9):1084-8.

Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos.

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Department of Anatomy, Foundation University Medical College, Rawalpindi.
Department of Anatomy, CPSP Regional Centre, Islamabad.
Depatment of Anatomy, Rawal Medical College, Rawalpindi.



To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo.


The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three subgroups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis.


Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrifised on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle.


Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers.The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy.

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