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J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Jan;8(1):309-15. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/7609.3937. Epub 2014 Jan 12.

Biomaterials in tooth tissue engineering: a review.

Author information

1
Associate Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, ESIC Dental College and Hospital , Rohini, Delhi-85, India .
2
Professor, Department of Oral Surgery, ESIC Dental College and Hospital , Rohini, Delhi-85, India .
3
Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, ESIC Dental College and Hospital , Rohini, Delhi-85, India .
4
Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, ESIC Dental College and Hospital , Rohini, Delhi-85, India .

Abstract

Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration.

KEYWORDS:

Biomaterials; Nanotechnology; Polymers; Scaffold; Tooth regeneration

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