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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 3;9(3):e90332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090332. eCollection 2014.

Exposure to bisphenol A correlates with early-onset prostate cancer and promotes centrosome amplification and anchorage-independent growth in vitro.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Cincinnati Cancer Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
2
Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
3
Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
4
Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Cincinnati Cancer Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America; Cincinnati Veteran Affairs Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.

Abstract

Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous. Animal studies found that BPA contributes to development of prostate cancer, but human data are scarce. Our study examined the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate cancer and assessed the effects of BPA on induction of centrosome abnormalities as an underlying mechanism promoting prostate carcinogenesis. The study, involving 60 urology patients, found higher levels of urinary BPA (creatinine-adjusted) in Prostate cancer patients (5.74 µg/g [95% CI; 2.63, 12.51]) than in non-Prostate cancer patients (1.43 µg/g [95% CI; 0.70, 2.88]) (p = 0.012). The difference was even more significant in patients <65 years old. A trend toward a negative association between urinary BPA and serum PSA was observed in Prostate cancer patients but not in non-Prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies examined centrosomal abnormalities, microtubule nucleation, and anchorage-independent growth in four Prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2, 22Rv1, PC-3) and two immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell lines (NPrEC and RWPE-1). Exposure to low doses (0.01-100 nM) of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold. Dose responses either peaked or reached the plateaus with 0.1 nM BPA exposure. This low dose also promoted microtubule nucleation and regrowth at centrosomes in RWPE-1 and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in C4-2. These findings suggest that urinary BPA level is an independent prognostic marker in Prostate cancer and that BPA exposure may lower serum PSA levels in Prostate cancer patients. Moreover, disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle by low-dose BPA may contribute to neoplastic transformation of the prostate.

PMID:
24594937
PMCID:
PMC3940879
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0090332
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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