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Neuropharmacology. 2014 Dec;87:41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.02.014. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

Preclinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and toxicology of lisdexamfetamine: a novel d-amphetamine pro-drug.

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Shire Pharmaceuticals, Chesterbrook, PA, USA. Electronic address:
Shire Pharmaceuticals, Basingstoke, UK.


Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a novel pro-drug of d-amphetamine that is currently used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ≥ 6 years and adults. LDX is enzymatically cleaved to form d-amphetamine following contact with red blood cells, which reduces the rate of appearance and magnitude of d-amphetamine concentration in the blood and hence the brain when compared with immediate-release d-amphetamine at equimolar doses. Thus, the increase of striatal dopamine efflux and subsequent increase of locomotor activity following d-amphetamine is less prominent and slower to attain maximal effect following an equimolar dose of LDX. Furthermore, unlike d-amphetamine, the pharmacodynamic effects of LDX are independent of the route of administration underlining the requirement to be hydrolyzed by contact with red blood cells. It is conceivable that these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may impact the psychostimulant properties of LDX in the clinic. This article reviews the preclinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, and toxicology of LDX. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacology; Toxicology; d-Amphetamine

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