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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jul;211(1):59.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.02.026. Epub 2014 Mar 2.

Characterization of women with elevated antimüllerian hormone levels (AMH): correlation of AMH with polycystic ovarian syndrome phenotypes and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

Author information

1
Genesis Fertility and Reproductive Medicine, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. Electronic address: resheft@gmail.com.
2
Genesis Fertility and Reproductive Medicine, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.
3
Clinical Research Division, Reprosource, Inc, Woburn, MA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Serum Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are elevated in polycystic ovarian syndrome and have been shown to be useful in its diagnosis. However, the clinical significance of extremely high AMH levels is understudied. We aimed to characterize a population of women with elevated AMH (>5 ng/mL).

STUDY DESIGN:

This was a retrospective cohort study of 134 women presenting to our fertility clinic for infertility evaluation and treatment who were found to have random serum AMH over 5 ng/mL. Women were divided into 3 groups according to AMH: 5-10 ng/mL, >10-14 ng/mL, and >14 ng/mL. Endocrine characteristics, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes, fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates were compared between groups.

RESULTS:

AMH ranged between 5 to 48 ng/mL. Greater than 97% of women with ultrahigh AMH (>10 ng/mL) had PCOS. In addition, women with AMH >10 ng/mL had greater prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and oligoamenorrhea than women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL. Moreover, serum AMH correlated positively with luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Furthermore, AMH showed strong predictive ability for the presence of amenorrhea (area under the curve, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92; P < .0001). Despite similar age and mean number of transferred embryos, women with AMH >10 ng/mL showed higher rates of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and clinical pregnancy rates compared with women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL.

CONCLUSION:

These data characterize a population of women with elevated AMH levels, demonstrating that the vast majority of women with AMH >10 ng/mL have PCOS. Increased AMH levels correlated with PCOS severity and are associated with greater ovarian stimulation and higher clinical pregnancy rates following assisted reproductive technology.

KEYWORDS:

antimüllerian hormone (AMH); assisted reproductive technology (ART); outcomes; polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS); ultrahigh AMH

PMID:
24593938
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajog.2014.02.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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