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J Midwifery Womens Health. 2014 Jan-Feb;59(1):91-4. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12157.

Umbilical cord avulsion in waterbirth.


Umbilical cord avulsion (or "cord snapping") is often cited as a risk associated with waterbirth. This article discusses a case study in which a cord avulsed during a waterbirth and uses it as a basis to explore the incidence, etiology, and associated risk factors of umbilical cord avulsion. The diagnosis, clinical presentation, and management of cord avulsion in waterbirth is presented along with a thorough review of the literature and relevant professional standards. This article offers recommendations for clinical practice to minimize the risk of a cord avulsion and highlights the need for additional research and provider education to ensure optimal care of women and newborns.


cord snapping; immersion; intrapartum emergencies; neonatal complications; umbilical cord avulsion; waterbirth

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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