Send to

Choose Destination
J Fish Biol. 2014 Mar;84(3):732-47. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12348.

Metabolic and embryonic responses to terrestrial incubation of Fundulus grandis embryos across a temperature gradient.

Author information

Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Aquaculture Research Station, 2410 Ben Hur Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70820, U.S.A.


This study simulated terrestrial incubation and measured rates of embryogenesis, nitrogen elimination, heart rate, lactate production, maximum length of time a hatch could be delayed and developmental responses of terrestrially incubated Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis embryos at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Temperature had a positive relationship with rate of embryogenesis, but a negative relationship with extent of extended incubation. The 30° C treatment reached embryonic maturity 6 days before the 20° C treatment. Embryos hatched between intervals of 240 and 336, 144 and 288, 96 and 240 and 96 and 192 h after reaching developmental maturity for the 20, 23, 26 and 30° C treatments. Significantly higher concentrations of total nitrogen, in the form of ammonia and urea, were recorded in the 20 and 30° C treatments. While temperature significantly influenced lactate and ATP concentrations, no significant influence of time of incubation was detected. Terrestrial embryos displayed an ability to develop quickly during embryogenesis and prolong incubation for an extended period of time after reaching embryonic maturity. This adaptation may be a life-history trait used to minimize asynchronous hatching, cannibalism and cohort size heterogeneity.


ammonia; development; fitness; ontogeny; urea

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center