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Anal Chem. 2014 Mar 18;86(6):2862-6. doi: 10.1021/ac500347n. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Hapten-grafted graphene as a transducer for homogeneous competitive immunoassay of small molecules.

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School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China , Haidian, Beijing 100872, China.


A hapten-grafted graphene-based biosensor by integrating both the graphene nanosheets and immunoassay sensing technologies was developed for ultrasensitive homogeneous competitive immunoassay of small molecules. The structure of hapten-grafted graphene avoids the activity loss of biomolecules immobilized onto the graphene surface and is beneficial to preserve the binding affinity between small molecule and its specific antibody. The sandwich structure formed between hapten-grafted graphene nanosheets and fluorescence-labeled antibody increases the quenching efficiency of the organic dye, thereby resulting in high signal-to-background ratios and improved sensitivity for Bisphenol A (BPA) detection. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and homogeneous competitive immunoassay mechanism, high BPA concentrations in the sample reduce the amount of fluorescence-labeled anti-BPA antibody bound to graphene-BPA nanosheets, thus resulting in remarkable fluorescence signals. The linear quantification of BPA over concentration ranges from 0.5 to 50 nM with a detection limit determined as 0.12 nM. These findings show that the proposed method provides a powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of small molecules in biological and environmental samples.

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