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World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb 21;20(7):1667-80. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i7.1667.

Role of the tumor microenvironment in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

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  • 1Hye Won Chung, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720, South Korea.


Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the 4(th) most prevalent cancer and has the 2(nd) highest cancer-related mortality rate worldwide. Despite the incidence of GC has decreased over the past few decades, it is still a serious health problem. Chronic inflammatory status of the stomach, caused by the infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and through the production of inflammatory mediators within the parenchyma is suspected to play an important role in the initiation and progression of GC. In this review, the correlation between chronic inflammation and H. pylori infection as an important factor for the development of GC will be discussed. Major components, including tumor-associated macrophages, lymphocytes, cancer-associated fibroblasts, angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines of GC microenvironment and their mechanism of action on signaling pathways will also be discussed. Increasing our understanding of how the components of the tumor microenvironment interact with GC cells and the signaling pathways involved could help identify new therapeutic and chemopreventive targets.


Cytokine; Gastric carcinoma; Helicobacter pylori; Inflammation; Tumor microenvironment

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