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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Jul;29(7):1415-22. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfu038. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Prevalence of subclinical atheromatosis and associated risk factors in chronic kidney disease: the NEFRONA study.

Author information

1
Nephrology Service and Unit for the Detection and The treatment of Atherothrombotic diseases (UDETMA), University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain.
2
Statistics Department, Institut de Recerca Biomedica de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
3
Nephrology Service and Unit for the Detection and The treatment of Atherothrombotic diseases (UDETMA), University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain Experimental Nephrology Laboratory at Institut de Recerca Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Lleida, Spain.
4
RedinRen del ISCIII, Madrid, Spain Bone and Mineral Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.
5
Bone and Mineral Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain Department of Nephrology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Nephrology Service and Unit for the Detection and The treatment of Atherothrombotic diseases (UDETMA), University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain Experimental Nephrology Laboratory at Institut de Recerca Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Lleida, Spain Bone and Mineral Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The causes of the high cardiovascular mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unknown. Here, we report data on prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in the NEFRONA population and a stratified multivariate logistic analysis of factors associated with the presence of plaque.

METHODS:

We analysed 2445 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min (CKD 3: 937; CKD 4-5: 820; CKD 5D: 688) and 559 non-CKD subjects (eGFR >60 mL/min), 18-75 years old, without previous cardiovascular events. An itinerant team of professionals performed carotid and femoral arterial ultrasound.

RESULTS:

The already high prevalence of plaques in CKD 3 is even higher in more severe CKD. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that, at any CKD stage, age and being male are independently associated with the presence of plaques. In CKD 3, there was a significant interaction of the smoking status and triglycerides levels which were independently associated with the presence of plaque. Furthermore, being diabetic was also associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. In stage 4-5 there was a significant association with smoking, high phosphate and hsCRP levels. In dialysis patients, being diabetic, having low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D3 and smoking status also showed a significant association with the presence of plaque. Furthermore, the association of phosphate levels with the presence of subclinical atheromatosis showed a U-shaped curve.

CONCLUSIONS:

This analysis demonstrates the magnitude of subclinical atheromatous disease in a large CKD population. The patient characteristics associated with the presence of plaque differ in every CKD stage.

KEYWORDS:

atheromatosis; cardiovascular disease prevention; chronic kidney disease; subclinical; ultrasound

PMID:
24586070
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfu038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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