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Clin Infect Dis. 2014 May;58(9):1250-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu108. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, 1998-2009.

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Epidemic Intelligence Service.



Before the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates among blacks were twice the rates in whites. We measured the effects of trends in PCV7-type and non-PCV7-type IPD rates on racial disparities in overall IPD and estimated the proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).


We analyzed data from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance system, which performs active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance for IPD for 29.2 million people in the United States, for the period 1998-2009. For patients with unknown race, we multiplied imputed race to calculate age-, race-, and serotype-specific IPD incidence rates.


During 1998-2009, 47 449 IPD cases were identified; race was unknown for 5419 (11%). After multiple imputation, 31 981 (67%) patients were considered white and 13 750 (29%) black. PCV7-type IPD rates in all ages in both races decreased to <1 case per 100 000, whereas there were no decreases in overall IPD rates after 2002. By 2009, PCV13 serotypes caused 71% of cases among whites aged <5 years compared with 58% among blacks (P < .01). PCV13 serotypes caused 50% of IPD cases in whites aged ≥5 years compared with 43% among blacks (P < .01).


Despite near elimination of PCV7-type IPD in both races, overall disparities in IPD rates persisted because non-PCV7-type IPD rates are higher among blacks. Whereas PCV13 introduction may reduce racial disparities in IPD, higher valency conjugate vaccines and strategies to directly address underlying causes are needed to eliminate IPD disparities.


Streptococcus pneumoniae; continental population groups; pneumocccal vaccines

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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