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Hepatology. 2014 Jul;60(1):158-68. doi: 10.1002/hep.27098. Epub 2014 May 28.

Prevalence and natural history of histologically proven chronic liver disease in a longitudinal cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes.

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National Institute for Health Research Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit (NDDBRU), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.


Although a higher prevalence of raised liver enzymes and altered echotexture on ultrasound have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the histological spectrum and natural history of chronic liver disease (CLD) in T1DM is unknown. We investigated the prevalence and outcome of histologically proven CLD in a longitudinal cohort of patients with T1DM. We identified patients who have had liver biopsy from a computerized database (DIAMOND; Hicom Technology, Brookwood, UK) containing longitudinal data for over 95% of type 1 diabetes patients from an overall catchment population of 700,000 people. Gender-matched patients with oral hypoglycemic-treated (T2OH) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (T2IN) who had liver biopsy formed two comparative cohorts. We collated clinical and histological data, as well as long-term outcomes of all three groups, and compared T1DM cirrhosis incidence to UK general population data. Of 4,644 patients with T1DM, 57 (1.2%) underwent liver biopsy. Of these, 53.1% of patients had steatosis, 20.4% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and 73.5% had fibrosis on index liver biopsy. Cirrhosis was diagnosed in 14 patients (24.6%) during follow-up. T1DM with age under 55 years had an odds ratio of 1.875 (95% confidence interval: 0.936-3.757) for cirrhosis incidence, compared to the general population. Longitudinal liver-related outcomes were similar comparing the T1DM cohort and respective type 2 diabetes cohorts--when adjusted for important confounders, diabetic cohort type did not predict altered risk of incident cirrhosis or portal hypertension.


Type 1 diabetes is associated with a previously unrecognized burden of CLD and its complications.

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