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Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2014 Apr 1;116:561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.01.038. Epub 2014 Feb 1.

Improved double emulsion technology for fabricating autofluorescent microcapsules as novel ultrasonic/fluorescent dual-modality contrast agents.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Chinese Academy of Sciences, & Division of Functional Materials and Nano Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Chinese Academy of Sciences, & Division of Functional Materials and Nano Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201, China. Electronic address: shenzheyu@nimte.ac.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Chinese Academy of Sciences, & Division of Functional Materials and Nano Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201, China. Electronic address: aiguo@nimte.ac.cn.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to explore an improved double emulsion technology with in situ reaction of lysine (Lys) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for fabricating autofluorescent Lys-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-GA (Lys-PLGA-GA) microcapsules as novel ultrasonic/fluorescent dual-modality contrast agents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and static light scattering (SLS) results show that 80% of the Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules are larger than 1.0 μm and 90% of them are smaller than 8.9 μm. SEM and laser confocal scanning microscope (LCSM) data demonstrate that the structure of our Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules is hollow. Compared with the FT-IR spectrum of PLGA microcapsules, a new peak at 1,644 cm(-1) in that of Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules confirms the formed Schiff base in Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules. LCSM images and fluorescence spectra show that our Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules exhibit bright and stable autofluorescence without conjugation to any fluorescent agent, which can be ascribed to the n-π transitions of the CN bonds in the formed Schiff base. Our autofluorescent Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules might have more wide applications than traditional fluorescent dyes because their excitation and emission spectra are both broad. The fluorescence intensity can also be tuned by the feeding amount of Lys and GA. The MTT assays reveal that the autofluorescent microcapsules are biocompatible. The results of fluorescent imaging in cells and in vitro ultrasonic imaging demonstrate the feasibility of our autofluorescent Lys-PLGA-GA microcapsules as ultrasonic/fluorescent dual-modality contrast agents. This novel ultrasonic/fluorescent dual-modality contrast agent might have potential for a variety of biological and medical applications.

KEYWORDS:

Autofluorescent microcapsules; Double emulsion technology; Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); Schiff base; Ultrasonic/fluorescent dual-modality contrast agents

PMID:
24583258
DOI:
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.01.038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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