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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 11;446(3):798-804. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.02.074. Epub 2014 Feb 25.

Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells.

Author information

1
Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000, France; Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat, Morocco.
2
LCPMC-A2, ICPM, Department of Chemistry, Université de Lorraine, Metz, France.
3
CRINSERM 866, Dijon, France.
4
Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000, France.
5
INSERM and HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille, France.
6
Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat, Morocco.
7
Laboratoire de recherche sur les Lipoprotéines et l'Athérosclérose, Faculté des Sciences Ben M'sik, Avenue Cdt Driss El Harti BP. 7955, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia-Casablanca, Morocco.
8
Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000, France. Electronic address: malki@u-bourgogne.fr.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

ABCA1; ABCG1; Argan oil; BV2 cells; Cactus oil; Ficus indica; LXR; Phytosterols; Schottenol; Spinasterol

PMID:
24582563
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.02.074
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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