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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014 Mar;43(1):25-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2013.09.001. Epub 2013 Dec 8.

Cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus: risk factors and medical therapy.

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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8857, USA. Electronic address:
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard K5.246, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.


Cardiovascular disease is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. In the last 2 decades, great strides have been made in reducing microvascular complications in patients with diabetes through improving glycemic control. Decreasing rates of cardiovascular events have proved to be more difficult than simply intensifying the management of hyperglycemia. A tremendous effort has been made to deepen understanding of cardiovascular disease in diabetes and to formulate the best treatment approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and discusses areas of uncertainty in the care of patients with diabetes who are at risk for cardiovascular disease.


Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Myocardial infarction; Risk; Therapy

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