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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014 Mar;43(3):242-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.12.005. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Multiple transmissible genes encoding fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin resistance co-located in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from food-producing animals in China.

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1
College of Veterinary Medicine, National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues, South China Agricultural University (SCAU), Guangzhou 510642, China.
2
China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081, China.
3
Antimicrobials Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, Institute of Microbiology of Infection and College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
4
Antimicrobials Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, Institute of Microbiology of Infection and College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address: l.j.v.piddock@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum β-lactams in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) from food-producing animals in China. In total, 31 non-duplicate NTS were obtained from food-producing animals that were sick. Isolates were identified and serotyped and the genetic relatedness of the isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and fluoroquinolone resistance genes was established by PCR and sequencing. Genes encoded on transmissible elements were identified by conjugation and transformation. Plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing. The occurrence and diversity of numerous different transmissible genes conferring fluoroquinolone resistance [qnrA, qnrD, oqxA and aac(6')-Ib-cr] and ESBLs (CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-14), and which co-resided in different isolates and serovars of Salmonella, were much higher than in European countries. Furthermore, different plasmids encoded fluoroquinolone resistance (ca. 6 kb) and β-lactam resistance (ca. 63 kb) and these co-resided in isolates with mutations in topoisomerase genes (gyrA and parC) giving very resistant Salmonella. The presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in food-producing animals in countries that export foodstuffs suggests that global transfer of antibiotic resistances from country to country on food is possible.

KEYWORDS:

ESBL; Fluoroquinolone; Plasmid; Salmonella

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