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Phys Rev Lett. 2014 Feb 14;112(6):061802. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Observation of electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam.

Abe K1, Adam J2, Aihara H3, Akiri T4, Andreopoulos C5, Aoki S6, Ariga A7, Ariga T7, Assylbekov S8, Autiero D9, Barbi M10, Barker GJ11, Barr G12, Bass M8, Batkiewicz M13, Bay F14, Bentham SW15, Berardi V16, Berger BE8, Berkman S17, Bertram I15, Bhadra S18, Blaszczyk FD19, Blondel A20, Bojechko C21, Bordoni S22, Boyd SB11, Brailsford D23, Bravar A20, Bronner C24, Buchanan N8, Calland RG25, Caravaca Rodríguez J22, Cartwright SL26, Castillo R22, Catanesi MG16, Cervera A27, Cherdack D8, Christodoulou G25, Clifton A8, Coleman J25, Coleman SJ28, Collazuol G29, Connolly K30, Cremonesi L31, Dabrowska A13, Danko I32, Das R8, Davis S30, de Perio P33, De Rosa G34, Dealtry T35, Dennis SR36, Densham C5, Di Lodovico F31, Di Luise S14, Drapier O37, Duboyski T31, Duffy K12, Dufour F20, Dumarchez J38, Dytman S32, Dziewiecki M39, Emery S40, Ereditato A7, Escudero L27, Finch AJ15, Floetotto L41, Friend M42, Fujii Y42, Fukuda Y43, Furmanski AP11, Galymov V40, Gaudin A21, Giffin S10, Giganti C38, Gilje K2, Goeldi D7, Golan T44, Gomez-Cadenas JJ27, Gonin M37, Grant N15, Gudin D45, Hadley DR11, Haesler A20, Haigh MD11, Hamilton P23, Hansen D32, Hara T6, Hartz M46, Hasegawa T42, Hastings NC10, Hayato Y1, Hearty C17, Helmer RL47, Hierholzer M7, Hignight J2, Hillairet A21, Himmel A4, Hiraki T24, Hirota S24, Holeczek J48, Horikawa S14, Huang K24, Ichikawa AK24, Ieki K24, Ieva M22, Ikeda M1, Imber J2, Insler J19, Irvine TJ49, Ishida T42, Ishii T42, Ives SJ23, Iyogi K1, Izmaylov A50, Jacob A12, Jamieson B51, Johnson RA28, Jo JH2, Jonsson P23, Jung CK2, Kaboth AC23, Kajita T49, Kakuno H52, Kameda J1, Kanazawa Y53, Karlen D54, Karpikov I45, Kearns E55, Khabibullin M45, Khotjantsev A45, Kielczewska D56, Kikawa T24, Kilinski A57, Kim J17, Kisiel J48, Kitching P58, Kobayashi T42, Koch L41, Kolaceke A10, Konaka A47, Kormos LL15, Korzenev A20, Koseki K42, Koshio Y59, Kreslo I7, Kropp W60, Kubo H24, Kudenko Y45, Kumaratunga S47, Kurjata R39, Kutter T19, Lagoda J57, Laihem K41, Lamont I15, Laveder M29, Lawe M26, Lazos M25, Lee KP49, Licciardi C10, Lindner T47, Lister C11, Litchfield RP11, Longhin A29, Ludovici L61, Macaire M40, Magaletti L16, Mahn K47, Malek M23, Manly S62, Marino AD28, Marteau J9, Martin JF33, Maruyama T42, Marzec J39, Mathie EL10, Matveev V45, Mavrokoridis K25, Mazzucato E40, McCarthy M17, McCauley N25, McFarland KS62, McGrew C2, Metelko C25, Mezzetto M29, Mijakowski P57, Miller CA47, Minamino A24, Mineev O45, Mine S60, Missert A28, Miura M1, Monfregola L27, Moriyama S1, Mueller TA37, Murakami A24, Murdoch M25, Murphy S14, Myslik J21, Nagasaki T24, Nakadaira T42, Nakahata M63, Nakai T64, Nakamura K65, Nakayama S1, Nakaya T66, Nakayoshi K42, Naples D32, Nielsen C17, Nirkko M7, Nishikawa K42, Nishimura Y49, O'Keeffe HM15, Ohta R42, Okumura K67, Okusawa T64, Oryszczak W56, Oser SM17, Owen RA31, Oyama Y42, Palladino V34, Paolone V32, Payne D25, Pearce GF5, Perevozchikov O19, Perkin JD26, Petrov Y17, Pickard LJ26, Pinzon Guerra ES18, Pistillo C7, Plonski P39, Poplawska E31, Popov B38, Posiadala M56, Poutissou JM47, Poutissou R47, Przewlocki P57, Quilain B37, Radicioni E16, Ratoff PN15, Ravonel M20, Rayner MA20, Redij A7, Reeves M15, Reinherz-Aronis E8, Retiere F47, Robert A38, Rodrigues PA62, Rojas P8, Rondio E57, Roth S41, Rubbia A14, Ruterbories D8, Sacco R31, Sakashita K42, Sánchez F22, Sato F42, Scantamburlo E20, Scholberg K4, Schwehr J8, Scott M47, Seiya Y64, Sekiguchi T42, Sekiya H1, Sgalaberna D14, Shiozawa M63, Short S23, Shustrov Y45, Sinclair P23, Smith B23, Smith RJ12, Smy M60, Sobczyk JT44, Sobel H68, Sorel M27, Southwell L15, Stamoulis P27, Steinmann J41, Still B31, Suda Y53, Suzuki A6, Suzuki K24, Suzuki SY42, Suzuki Y63, Szeglowski T48, Tacik R69, Tada M42, Takahashi S24, Takeda A1, Takeuchi Y70, Tanaka HK1, Tanaka HA17, Tanaka MM42, Terhorst D41, Terri R31, Thompson LF26, Thorley A25, Tobayama S17, Toki W8, Tomura T1, Totsuka Y71, Touramanis C25, Tsukamoto T42, Tzanov M19, Uchida Y23, Ueno K1, Vacheret A12, Vagins M68, Vasseur G40, Wachala T13, Waldron AV12, Walter CW4, Wark D72, Wascko MO23, Weber A35, Wendell R1, Wilkes RJ30, Wilking MJ47, Wilkinson C26, Williamson Z12, Wilson JR31, Wilson RJ8, Wongjirad T4, Yamada Y42, Yamamoto K64, Yanagisawa C2, Yen S47, Yershov N45, Yokoyama M53, Yuan T28, Zalewska A13, Zalipska J57, Zambelli L38, Zaremba K39, Ziembicki M39, Zimmerman ED28, Zito M40, Zmuda J44; T2K Collaboration.

Author information

1
University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Kamioka Observatory, Kamioka, Japan.
2
State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, New York, USA.
3
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
5
STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, and Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, United Kingdom.
6
Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
7
University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Bern, Switzerland.
8
Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
9
Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, IPN Lyon (IN2P3), Villeurbanne, France.
10
University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
11
University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry, United Kingdom.
12
Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford, United Kingdom.
13
H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow, Poland.
14
ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zurich, Switzerland.
15
Lancaster University, Physics Department, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
16
INFN Sezione di Bari and Università e Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari, Italy.
17
University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
18
York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
19
Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
20
University of Geneva, Section de Physique, DPNC, Geneva, Switzerland.
21
University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
22
Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain.
23
Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London, United Kingdom.
24
Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto, Japan.
25
University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
26
University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
27
IFIC (CSIC and University of Valencia), Valencia, Spain.
28
University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Physics, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
29
INFN Sezione di Padova and Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova, Italy.
30
University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington, USA.
31
Queen Mary University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London, United Kingdom.
32
University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
33
University of Toronto, Department of Physics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
34
INFN Sezione di Napoli and Università di Napoli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli, Italy.
35
Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford, United Kingdom and STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, and Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, United Kingdom.
36
STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, and Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, United Kingdom and University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry, United Kingdom.
37
Ecole Polytechnique, IN2P3-CNRS, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau, France.
38
UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris, France.
39
Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw, Poland.
40
IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
41
RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen, Germany.
42
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
43
Miyagi University of Education, Department of Physics, Sendai, Japan.
44
Wroclaw University, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Wroclaw, Poland.
45
Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
46
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
47
TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
48
University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Katowice, Poland.
49
University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Kashiwa, Japan.
50
IFIC (CSIC and University of Valencia), Valencia, Spain and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
51
University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
52
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics, Tokyo, Japan.
53
University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo, Japan.
54
TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
55
Boston University, Department of Physics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.
56
University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw, Poland.
57
National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, Poland.
58
University of Alberta, Centre for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
59
Okayama University, Department of Physics, Okayama, Japan.
60
University of California, Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, California, USA.
61
INFN Sezione di Roma and Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Roma, Italy.
62
University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York, USA.
63
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Kamioka Observatory, Kamioka, Japan.
64
Osaka City University, Department of Physics, Osaka, Japan.
65
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.
66
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto, Japan.
67
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Kashiwa, Japan.
68
University of California, Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, California, USA and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.
69
University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada and TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
70
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan and Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
71
University of Alberta, Centre for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Bern, Switzerland and Boston University, Department of Physics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and University of California, Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, California, USA and IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France and University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Physics, Boulder, Colorado, USA and Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA and Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, North Carolina, USA and Ecole Polytechnique, IN2P3-CNRS, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau, France and ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zurich, Switzerland and University of Geneva, Section de Physique, DPNC, Geneva, Switzerland and H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow, Poland and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan and Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain and IFIC (CSIC and University of Valencia), Valencia, Spain and Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London, United Kingdom and INFN Sezione di Bari and Università e Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli and Università di Napoli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli, Italy and INFN Sezione di Padova and Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova, Italy and INFN Sezione di Roma and Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Roma, Italy and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Ch
72
Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London, United Kingdom and STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, and Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The T2K experiment has observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam produced 295 km from the Super-Kamiokande detector with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. A total of 28 electron neutrino events were detected with an energy distribution consistent with an appearance signal, corresponding to a significance of 7.3σ when compared to 4.92±0.55 expected background events. In the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing model, the electron neutrino appearance signal depends on several parameters including three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, a mass difference Δm(32)(2) and a CP violating phase δ(CP). In this neutrino oscillation scenario, assuming |Δm(32)(2)|=2.4×10(-3)  eV(2), sin(2)θ(23)=0.5, and Δm322>0 (Δm(32)(2)<0), a best-fit value of sin(2)2θ(13)=0.140(-0.032)(+0.038) (0.170(-0.037)(+0.045)) is obtained at δ(CP)=0. When combining the result with the current best knowledge of oscillation parameters including the world average value of θ(13) from reactor experiments, some values of δ(CP) are disfavored at the 90% C.L.

PMID:
24580687
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.061802
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