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Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 May;8(4):445-52. doi: 10.1586/17474124.2014.888951. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

The effects of sleeve gastectomy on gastro-esophageal reflux and gastro-esophageal motility.

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Department of Gastroenterology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 0QT, UK.


Sleeve gastrectomy is an increasingly performed bariatric procedure associated with low morbidity and good short to medium term effects on weight loss and comorbid conditions. Studies assessing the prevalence of post-operative gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), show sleeve gastrectomy may provoke de novo GERD symptoms or worsening of pre-existing GERD. Pathophysiological mechanisms of GERD after sleeve gastrectomy include a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, increased gastro-esophageal pressure gradient and intra-thoracic migration of the remnant stomach. A reduction in the compliance of the gastric remnant may provoke an increase in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. Time-resolved MRI suggests relative gastric stasis in the proximal remnant and increased emptying from the antrum. A lack of standardisation of technique, along with heterogeneity of studies assessing GERD may explain the wide variability in reported results. Simultaneous and careful repair of an associated hiatus hernia may result in a reduction in the prevalence of post-operative GERD.

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