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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Apr 15;306(8):G686-98. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00433.2013. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Feeding-dependent activation of enteric cells and sensory neurons by lymphatic fluid: evidence for a neurolymphocrine system.

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1
Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, Victoria, Australia;

Abstract

Lymphatic fluid is a plasma filtrate that can be viewed as having biological activity through the passive accumulation of molecules from the interstitial fluid. The possibility that lymphatic fluid is part of an active self-contained signaling process that parallels the endocrine system, through the activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), has remained unexplored. We show that the GPCR lysophosphatidic acid 5 (LPA5) is found in sensory nerve fibers expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that innervate the lumen of lymphatic lacteals and enteric nerves. Using LPA5 as a model for nutrient-responsive GPCRs present on sensory nerves, we demonstrate that dietary protein hydrolysate (peptone) can induce c-Fos expression in enterocytes and nerves that express LPA5. Mesenteric lymphatic fluid (MLF) mobilizes intracellular calcium in cell models expressing LPA5 upon feeding in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Primary cultured neurons of the dorsal root ganglia expressing CGRP are activated by MLF, which is enhanced upon LPA5 overexpression. Activation is independent of the known LPA5 agonists, lysophosphatidic acid and farnesyl pyrophosphate. These data bring forth a pathway for the direct stimulation of sensory nerves by luminal contents and interstitial fluid. Thus, by activating LPA5 on sensory nerves, MLF provides a means for known and yet to be identified constituents of the interstitial fluid to act as signals to comprise a "neurolymphocrine" system.

KEYWORDS:

G protein-coupled receptor; intestine; lacteal; lysophosphatidic acid 5; nutrient sensing

PMID:
24578341
PMCID:
PMC3989702
DOI:
10.1152/ajpgi.00433.2013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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