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West J Nurs Res. 2015 May;37(5):581-98. doi: 10.1177/0193945914524493. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Test of a Process Evaluation Checklist to improve neonatal pain practices.

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  • 1The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 3Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 4University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


The Evidence-Based Practice Identification and Change (EPIC) strategy is a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention. Although the intervention promoted evidence-based practice, the process of delivering the intervention components is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of the Process Evaluation Checklist developed for monitoring the fidelity of implementing the intervention to improve neonatal pain practices (i.e., documentation of ordering and administration of sucrose). A case study design was used. A research practice council in a single Neonatal Intensive Care Unit implemented the intervention. The Process Evaluation Checklist was used to record adherence in carrying out the intervention components. A significant improvement in the documentation of sucrose orders (p = .002) and administration (p = .004) provided evidence of the construct validity of this intervention fidelity measure. Using this measure in different contexts over longer periods of time will further validate the Process Evaluation Checklist.


critical care; instrument development; pain; perinatal

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