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Am Heart J. 2014 Mar;167(3):283-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.11.012. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery disease: a review of the evidence.

Author information

1
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Electronic address: vijay.kunadian@newcastle.ac.uk.
2
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
3
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
4
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
5
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Abstract

Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries despite significant progress in primary prevention and treatment strategies. Older patients are at particularly high risk of poor outcomes following acute coronary syndrome and impaired nutrition, including low vitamin D levels, may play a role. The extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, in particular, its role in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system are receiving increased attention. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D levels have been linked to inflammation, higher coronary artery calcium scores, impaired endothelial function and increased vascular stiffness. However, so far, few randomized controlled trials have investigated the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in preventing cardiovascular events, and most available trials have tested low doses of supplementation in relatively low-risk populations. Whether vitamin D supplementation will be beneficial among patients with coronary artery disease, including high risk older patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, is unknown and warrants further investigation.

PMID:
24576510
DOI:
10.1016/j.ahj.2013.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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