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Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jun;12(2):e215-21. doi: 10.1111/ajco.12165. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

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Department of Radiotherapy, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Urology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Genotoxicity Laboratory, Division of Toxicology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder.


We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology.


Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P < 0.05). An optimal cutoff value of 174.0 pg/mL was proposed. The urinary sFas level was found to have an approximate sensitivity and specificity of 88.03% and 89.19% (P < 0.001), whereas urine cytology had sensitivity of 66.67% and specificity of 95.95%. sFas had better sensitivity in higher grade and both primary and recurrent cases of urinary bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy.


Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease.


non-invasive diagnosis; soluble Fas; urinary biomarker; urinary bladder cancer

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